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From Twenty-Five Ways To Suppress Truth: The Rules of Disinformation ( Includes The 8 Traits of A Disinformationalist) by H. Michael Sweeney.
Table of contents

A major disinformation effort in , Operation Neptune , was designed by the Czechoslovak secret service, the StB , to defame West European politicians as former Nazi collaborators. The extent of Soviet disinformation covert operation campaigns, came to light through the defections of KGB officers and officers of allied Soviet bloc services from the late s through the s.

An example of successful Soviet disinformation was the publication in of Who's Who in the CIA which was quoted as authoritative in the West until the early s. During the s, the U. President Jimmy Carter was appalled at these lies and subsequently the Carter Administration displayed increased interest in CIA efforts to counter Soviet disinformation. In , the CIA issued a report on active measures used by Soviet intelligence.

In the post-Soviet era, disinformation evolved to become a key tactic in the military doctrine of Russia. The European Union and NATO saw Russian disinformation in the early 21st century as such a problem that they both set up special units to analyze and debunk fabricated falsehoods.

The 25 Rules of Disinformation

Later in the 21st century, as social media gained prominence, Russia began to use popular platforms such as Facebook and Twitter to spread disinformation. Facebook believes that as many as million users have seen content from Russian disinformation campaigns on its platform. Twitter has said that it has found 36, Russian bots spreading tweets related to the American election. The United States Intelligence Community appropriated usage of the term disinformation in the s from the Russian dezinformatsiya , and began to utilize similar strategies [5] [35] during the Cold War and in conflict with other nations.

In October , the term gained increased currency in the U. Disinformation first made an appearance in dictionaries in , specifically Webster's New College Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary in By , use of the term disinformation had fully established itself in the English language within the lexicon of politics. Cunningham wrote in his book The Idea of Propaganda that disinformation had become pervasively utilized as a synonym for propaganda. The authors of a book about psychopathy in the workplace , Snakes in Suits describe a five-phase model of how a typical workplace psychopath climbs to and maintains power.

In phase three, manipulation, the psychopath will create a scenario of " psychopathic fiction "—where positive information about themselves and negative disinformation about others will be created, casting others in roles as a part of a network of pawns or patrons to be utilized and groomed into accepting the psychopath's agenda.

Danks discuss the ethical implications in using disinformation as a tactic during information warfare.

Finland is winning the war on fake news. What it’s learned may be crucial to Western democracy

Pope Francis criticized disinformation in a interview, after being made the subject of a fake news website —during the U. According to a study, the effects of disinformation campaigns are exaggerated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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False information spread deliberately to deceive. For other uses, see Disinformation disambiguation. EU vs Disinfo. Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 20 February Demy; George R. Lucas Jr. Strawser eds. Having gone into effect Jan. Aimed at social networks with more than 2 million members — such as Facebook, YouTube and Twitter — the law was passed in June and gave platforms until the end of the year to prepare for the regulation.

A satirical magazine called Titanic published a piece with insults and was banned from Twitter, and even the minister of justice — who helped author the NetzDG — had his tweets censored. In early March , officials considered revising the law following criticism that too much content was being blocked. Among those revisions includes allowing users to get incorrectly deleted content restored, as well as pushing social media companies to set up independent bodies to review questionable posts.

Action: Database , proposed state law , proposed law amendment and internet shutdowns. A state government in India is considering creating legislation aimed at punishing purveyors of online misinformation — specifically doctored photographs. The Economic Times reported in mid-June that West Bengal officials want to clarify how the state could additionally prosecute the publication of misinformation.

Currently, citizens can be jailed in the state for posting misinformation if it causes fear or alarm in the public. In addition to bolstering existing law, West Bengal has been preparing a database of fake news stories distributed on social media over the past few years. It has also kept records of past offenders, The Times reported.

129 comments on “Jackel’s 25 rules of disinformation”

The efforts come amid rising tensions related to misinformation in India. Rumors on messaging platforms like WhatsApp have allegedly incited violence across the country and the national government itself has tried to issue anti-fake news guidelines in the past. In October, Wired reported that the Indian government had turned off the internet more than times over the past year to quell the spread of rumors on WhatsApp. The shutdowns have cost the country billions of dollars and are more frequent than in any other country, according to Freedom House.

Some research also suggests that these are ineffective, and that misinformation, political turbulence and rioting still occur during shutdowns. In December, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology released draft changes to the IT Act that would require social media platforms to start tracing the originators of messages when compelled by the government.

The effort is aimed at curbing the spread of unlawful content and misinformation on platforms like WhatsApp. Action: Government task forces , arrests and site tracking. In January , President Joko Widodo appointed a head of the newly formed National Cyber and Encryption Agency to help intelligence agencies and law enforcement efforts combat online misinformation and hoaxes before nationwide regional polls that summer.

The government has also been blocking websites that publish content deemed to be harmful for society. The Jakarta Post reported that social media companies are also working with the government to block and remove fake content, as well as illegal media such as pornography. In late January, the government also deployed a tool that allegedly automatically tracks and reports sites publishing fake news stories.

In October, Bloomberg reported that the Indonesian government has a team of 70 engineers monitoring social media traffic 24 hours a day in an effort to detect online misinformation. The government has taken other substantial actions against misinformation. In September, the communications ministry announced that it would hold weekly briefings to debunk misinformation. And in April, officials threatened to shut down Facebook if it failed to crack down on misinformation ahead of the election. The minimum sentence under the law is four years.

In May of , the Indonesian government blocked access to certain social media features for almost a week following violent riots that broke out following the election of President Joko Widodo. The measure was taken in an effort to curb the spread of hoaxes and calls for violence that had spiked on social media networks. It prevented users on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and WhatsApp from being able to upload photos or videos to the platforms.

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  5. In June , a member of the Muslim Cyber Army was arrested in Java and charged with spreading fake news and hate speech. Lawmakers introduced a bill in early December that would make using a bot to create multiple fake accounts posing as different people spreading political messages a criminal offense. The legislation also takes a page from the Honest Ads bill proposed in the U.

    Congress, eliciting widespread coverage as a law condemning all misinformation — an error in nuance that even Poynter made. Action: Court ruling. Focus: Foreign disinformation campaigns and propaganda. The Israeli government banned the publication of anonymous internet advertising on any platform ahead of the April 9, , election. The Times of Israel reported that it banned anonymous ads created both in Israel and abroad, and it compelled the identification of fake accounts used for propaganda, bots, WhatsApp messages and surveys distributed on other messaging platforms. Action: Online reporting portal , arrest and authority report.


    Focus: Misinformation and fake reviews. A little more than a month before the general election, the Italian government announced Jan. The service, which prompts users for their email addresses, a link to the fake news story or fabricated media and any social media networks they saw it on, ferries reports to the Polizia Postale, a unit of the state police that investigates cybercrime.

    The department will fact-check them and — if laws were broken — pursue legal action. At the very least, the service will draw upon official sources to deny false or misleading information. In a landmark ruling in September, a man was sentenced to prison for nine months for selling fake TripAdvisor reviews to restaurants and hotels, The Washington Post reported.

    The court decided that creating a false identity to write fraudulent reviews violated Italian law. Action: Criminal investigation.

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